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A continuous border can be a simple geometric or an elaborate floral. All borders can be stenciled in one or more colors Fig. Fret Borders. A fret is an interlocking, angular band of stencil design that forms a border. The fret is geometric although it may be interrupted by nongeometric design. Fret borders look especially good on floors but can decorate any surface Fig.
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Borders that are interrupted regularly by principal parts differing from the band design are designated interrupted borders Fig. Spot Stencils. Spots vary in size, shape, and design. Any individual design is considered a spot stencil, such as a flower, a bird, a geometric shape.
Spots can be used sparsely or in greater density, and in one or more colors. They adapt to any surface and can be used alone or in combination with borders Fig. Diaper Stencils. Diaper designs are the most complex stencil designs. The pattern in a diaper continuously repeats itself in all directions. When a diaper is stenciled, the overall pattern interlocks as if it had no apparent beginning or end Fig.
The best method for terminating a border is a straight line. When you have reached the point at which the border should end, allow a small space and stencil a vertical line. Very narrow borders do not require terminating Fig. To continue a border around a turn, a turn-corner stencil can be utilized.
The border design is modified slightly to accommodate turning the corner. The turn-corner stencil makes a right-angle turn and flows uninterrupted into the border design. A simpler means of turning a border is to use a spot stencil in the corner. The spot stencil is larger than the width of the border.
- The Dark Intruder?
- Historical Dictionary of Rococo Art (Historical Dictionaries of Literature and the Arts).
- Physicalism (New Problems of Philosophy).
The border is stenciled up to the spot but does not touch it Fig. A third method is to miter the corner. Mitering is easily understood by observing how a picture frame is joined at corners Fig. Instructions are given in "Stenciling on Floors.
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All stencil designs that run continuously, such as borders, frets, and diapers, must have register marks. Register marks help match up and closely join each setting of the stencil plate, thus keeping the stenciling straight. Register marks are on the right or left side of the stencil plate and repeat part of the design on the opposite side of the stencil plate. For each new setting, the plate is placed to the right or left side of the first impression, with the register mark exactly over its matching place in the previously stenciled impression Fig.
Two-plate stencils require two sets of register marks. Each plate will be stenciled in a different color. The register marks on the first plate are like those described above, but on the second plate the register marks consist of a few cut-out parts from the first stencil plate.
After the first color has been stenciled, the second plate is placed on top with the register marks placed over the matching parts of the first stencil. The second color is stenciled excluding the cut-out register marks, which remain the first color. Without these register marks, the exact location of the design on the second plate would be stenciled out of balance with the design on the first plate Fig.
Stenciling is often done in more than one color using a single stencil plate. To apply colors using one setting of the stencil plate, the parts to be transferred in the second color are covered with the hand or a piece of masking tape while the first color is transferred. Then, without removing the stencil plate, the second color is stenciled while the first is covered.
In this manner the colors are kept clean and separate. Masks are also used to prevent stenciling beyond a designated limit; for example, one might mask off a diaper stencil before it reaches an enclosing border Fig.
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Chalk guidelines are applied on fabrics, furniture, floors, and walls to help locate stencil placement. Pencil guidelines are drawn through the center of the stencil plate. Place the stencil plate over the chalk guideline and center the pencil guideline so both are joined and form a single line. Stencil designs run straighter when this procedure is followed. The different stencil designs in this book can be modified and combined to suit your personal taste.
Adapting your own stencil designs is simple. Take a stencil design and mask off undesirable portions of the design. You can combine the remainder with similarly modified designs. The result is an original stencil pattern Fig. Before starting to work, assemble all your tools and materials in one place, preferably on a table that has been protected with a few layers of newspaper.
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Several types of paper can be used for making stencil plates. Your art supplier will have oiled stencil board in stock. This paper is opaque and has been previously waterproofed by treatment with oil. It is a fairly heavy weight and can be used to stencil any surface. If stencil board is not available, any type of good grade paper can be treated at home for use in stenciling. Manila adapts particularly well.
If manila is used, soak a rag in boiled linseed oil and turpentine and wipe it over both sides of the paper until the sheet is saturated. Hang the paper to dry where it will not be damaged or disturbed for twenty-four hours. The more oil in the paper, the easier the knife will cut through it. Stencil board, manila and other heavy-duty paper can be protected further by brushing on a coat of shellac or varnish after cutting out plates.
A third candidate, which I frequently use, is heavy-duty wax paper. Sold in sheets, it can be used for tracing because it is translucent, thus eliminating the extra step of transferring a design to a plate with carbon paper. It also cuts easily because of its light weight. However, wax paper is not durable and although a stencil plate of wax paper is quicker to prepare; it should be expected to last for only one job.
Once the paper is chosen and prepared as necessary, it is ready to receive the design. You will need a good grade of tracing paper, transparent enough to catch every detail of the design you wish to copy. Then you will need carbon or transfer paper for transferring the traced design to the stencil paper. A pencil and ruler complete the tools needed. After the design has been traced from this book, the carbon paper is placed face down on the stencil paper and secured with tape.
The traced design is set down on top and taped in its place Fig. With a different color pencil, go over the entire design. In this manner you will have duplicated the design onto the stencil board. The designs in this book may not be the proper size for the use you have in mind. If this is the case, you will need to enlarge or shrink the design. The procedure is relatively easy. Take a piece of tracing paper and trace the design.
With a ruler, box in the design on four sides.
Divide the enclosed area into a grid by placing horizontal and vertical lines at regular intervals. On the stencil board, draw a similar grid that has a corresponding number of squares that will cover the new desired size. It can be longer or shorter for different effects, but the same number of blocks should appear in both drawings. Each block should be regarded separately, and the lines of the traced design that fall in a separate block should be duplicated in the matching block on the stencil board grid.
When finished you will have an accurately reduced or enlarged pattern Fig.
The Cutting Surface. A piece of plate glass about two feet square with the edges taped to avoid injury serves as the best cutting surface. Your local glass and mirror dealer or sometimes a large hardware store should have odd-sized remnants for sale at a reasonable cost. Sheet glass, such as windowpanes, should never be used because it will break under the pressure of the knife.